Шоу-мультитурнир "Золотой Тигр-III"


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About Yekaterinburg

Ekaterinburg is based as factory-fortress on the Inet river in 1723. The place for factory was chosen by V.Tatischev. The factory under the direction of is constructed by V.de Gennina. The city is named in honour of empress Catherine I. Capacities of the Ekaterinburg factory included: 2 blast furnaces, 14 hammers, iron factory, steel and anchor factories, cars for drilling of guns and another. The basic production – iron, pig-iron and copper. In full capacities of factory were never used. In 1737 blast furnaces are stopped. From the end of 1750th years output on iron gradually decreased, steel and wire factories, and in 1769 is stopped iron manufacture. In 1808 the Ekaterinburg factory is closed.


In a XVIII-th century Ekaterinburg develops as an administrative centre the industries of Ural Mountains and Siberia. The sectoral management system mountain factories of Ural Mountains, Transbaikalia and Altai was independent of the local provincial authorities. Its central body settled down in Ekaterinburg. After 1781 management of a mountain part has been decentralised and subordinated to state chambers of provincial boards.


In 1738 in a city the stone-cutting workshop which has become in 1765 by the Ekaterinburg lapidary factory is based. In 1761 through Ekaterinburg has passed the Siberian post path.


In 1781 Ekaterinburg has received the status of a district city in the Perm province. In 1783 to it the arms have been appropriated, and in 1787 the first elections in a city (six-public) thought have taken place. In city self-management in XVIII – first half of XIX-th century merchants-Old Believers dominated.


In 1807 Ekaterinburg has received the status of a mountain city, according to the Project of mountain position. The mountain chief of factories of the Ekaterinburg mountain district, on a level with a municipal duma, was responsible for municipal economy and the law and order. Workmen and peasants of state factories were released from local taxes. In 1831 the residence of the Main chief of mountain factories of the Ridge is transferred to Ekaterinburg Ural, from the beginning 1850 it actually individually operated a city.


Since 1726 in Ekaterinburg manufacturing of copper money, at first payments (heavy square plates where face value was equal with the metal price), and then since 1735 of the all-Russian copper coin has begun. The Ekaterinburg mint made to 80 % of a copper coin in Russia, is closed in June, 1876. The vases made at the Ekaterinburg lapidary factory and bowls decorated the Winter palace. At the mechanical factory based in 1839 water wheels and turbines, steam-engines, metal-cutting machine tools etc. were made. In 1874 the factory has lost orders and was closed.


The basic employment of merchant class – soap-producing, tanning manufactures, trade in meat and cattle, orders on transportation of metals. The very first oil the factory is based in 1776, tanning – 1782, soap factory has begun since 1787. By data for 1804 of fat it was melted at 10 factories on 603 thousand roubles, 20 tanning enterprises manufactured skin on 30 thousand roubles, 9 brick-works made to 400 thousand bricks annually (on 3,6 thousand roubles). Besides the Ekaterinburg merchants posessed some flour mills, soap-producing, oil  the enterprises. They settled down on manor near to the house. Old Believers lodged on so-called Zaimke, in a southern part of a city.


1820th years the richest of the Ekaterinburg merchants were engaged in working out of mines gold in Western Siberia. In June, 1826 the Ekaterinburg merchant Jakim Ryazanov one of the first in Russia has obtained the permit to be engaged in a gold mining. In the company with merchants F.Kazantsev and S.Balandin on a boundary of 1820-1830th years he developed a mine around the river of Kundustujul of Tomsk province. In the first 5 years they managed to extract over 116 poods of gold. Tit Zotov owning mines on the river of Sevaglikon Yenisei lips was large. Among handicraftsmen stone-cutting and jeweller art prevailed.


After cancellation of the serfdom the mining industry of Ural Mountains endured serious crisis. In 1863 the Ekaterinburg society has achieved cancellation of the status of a mountain city. In 1872 the new municipal duma by a qualification principle is selected. Influence of the mountain authorities in Ekaterinburg gradually decreased that has positively affected municipal economy.


During the same period there was a change of commercial and industrial elite, transport, the flour-grinding industry, sphere of services have started to develop. In 1847 in Ekaterinburg the office of the State commercial bank for mining industry crediting has opened. In 1864 the Public bank which basis of the capital was made by means of the city budget is founded. In 1871 there was bank branch Volzhsko-Kamskogo – the commercial credit institution first in a city. In 1872 the Siberian trading bank, to the XX-th century beginning become to one of the largest in Russia is created.


In 1878 the railway first in Ural Mountains the Ekaterinburg-Perm which has connected factories of Average Ural Mountains with provincial capital is constructed. Its building was financed by the private capital. The next decades Ekaterinburg became a large railway junction: directions Ekaterinburg – Tyumen – Omsk (1885) and Ekaterinburg – Chelyabinsk (1896) gave vent on the Siberian railway, and a new branch line Ekaterinburg – Kungur - Perm (1909) a direct way to St.-Petersburg. Designed in the beginning of the XX-th century the railway of the Moscow direction Ekaterinburg – Kazan, has been finished only in 1920.


Growth of the population of Ekaterinburg and network of railways promoted development of the flour-grinding industry. In 1884 the steam mill of a mayor first in Ural Mountains I.I.Simanova who has become by leading enterprise of this branch in the uralo-Siberian region has started to work. A.E.Borchaninova's second steam mill is constructed in 1906 – 1908. For an economic and public life of a city the exhibition had great value passed in Ekaterinburg in 1887 Sibirsko-Ural scientifically-promyshlenaja. By 1904 in Ekaterinburg (without suburbs) 49 industrial enterprises with a turn of 4070 thousand roubles and more than 300 small handicraft institutions and workshops were. Largest of them: F.Jatesa's making steam-engines the mechanical factory, cloth factory of brothers of Makarovyh, brewery of brothers of Zlokazovyh.


In 1917 power transition to Bolsheviks in Ekaterinburg has occurred peacefully, since March, 1918 the municipal duma was replaced by City council executive committee. In a city the Ural country council led by A.Beloborodovym – the supreme body of the Soviet power in Ural Mountains settled down. Soon after the beginning of full-scale civil war in June - the beginning of July, 1918 Antibolshevist forces attacked a city from outside Chelyabinsk and Tyumen. In the night from 16 for July, 17th Nikolay II and his family has been shot. On July, 25th the red have left Ekaterinburg, and on July, 28th the city without fight was entered by S.Voitsekhovsky's Czechoslovak parts. In Ekaterinburg the Time regional government of Ural Mountains has been formed, has renewed activity a municipal duma, there have arrived some deputies of the All-Russia Constituent assembly (V.Chernov and others). After Omsk revolution on November, 18th, 1918 executive power has passed to the appointed V.Kolchakom to the Chief of the Ural edge With. With. Постникову, deputies of the Constituent assembly have been arrested. Ekaterinburg at that time – one of the centres of military management and formation of the Siberian army, here was going to transfer the rate of Kolchak. During offensive Ekaterinburg operation of 2nd and 3rd armies on July, 14th, 1919 red again have occupied a city, the Soviet authorities have been restored.


After civil war of essential changes in manufacture structure has not occurred, the basic attention was given to restoration destroyed by war and the nationalised enterprises: factory Metallist (former Jatesa), weaver's factories of a name of V.Lenin (former Makarovyh), Top-Isetsky of metal works and others. By 1924 the gross output volume has reached 4/5 levels of 1913. At the time of the NEW ECONOMIC POLICY has had development a private handicraft work, basically sewing, shoe, baking, metal working (2178 handicraftsmen for autumn of 1925). In Sverdlovsk there was a bakery.


In 1923 Ekaterinburg became capital of the Ural area including modern Kurgan, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Tyumen and Sverdlovsk areas. In 1924 it is renamed into Sverdlovsk. On January, 7th, 1934 from the Ural area the Sverdlovsk area is allocated.


In days of the first five-years periods of the enterprise of a city new large factories (Uralmash and others) have been reconstructed and constructed. There was a public transport, new power station, the water drain and a waterpipe, many-storeyed houses, schools and high schools, drama theatre and a philharmonic society, circus and a zoo. In days of the first five-years periods of the enterprise of a city new large factories have been reconstructed and constructed: the Ural factory of heavy mechanical engineering (1933), Uralelektromashina (1934), Ural turbo-motor factory (1939) and others. During this period the industrial profile of Sverdlovsk was generated. To the beginning of 1940th years in a city 85 state enterprises of allied and republican value operated, 40 % from volume of all made production were necessary on mechanical engineering and metal working.


In the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 there was one more large transformation of the industry of a city. To Sverdlovsk have been evacuated more than 50 large enterprises on which base have been created new or old factories are expanded: the Ural factory of chemical mechanical engineering, the Ural instrument-making factory, the Ural optiko-mechanical factory and others. The industry of Sverdlovsk made various military production (tanks, self-propelled artillery installations, tools and many other things). As a whole for years of war the volume of output has grown six times.


In post-war years in a city economy the mechanical engineering and metal working continued to prevail, but there were the enterprises focused on the consumer market: fatty industrial complex, a knitting factory, factory of large-panel housing construction. In 1970-1980 expansion of a military-industrial complex on which share it was necessary to 20 % of industrial output proceeded.


In December, 1991 the historical name is returned a city.


In 2000th years in Ekaterinburg variety of the trading-entertaining centres (including Dirigible balloon in 2001, East in 2005, is constructed by Ikea, Mega, Ashan, Ob and Carnival in 2006, «Park the House», Greenwich, Gringo, Ekaterina's, etc.), networks of shops, office buildings (Antej, 1st and 2nd turns, is under construction 3rd, height of 45 floors), the aquapark largest in Europe Limpopo, etc. In separate quarters is conducted housing construction (basically elite, including Malahovsky (in 1997—2007), VISAS-RIGHT-BANK (with 1996), with 1999 — building around street Radishcheva (the club house Tikhvin, Aquamarine, etc.) «Gold mile» (with 2003), Academic, Ekaterinburg-city with five-stars hotel Хайат and trading-entertaining centre Demidovsky, etc. Is erected the Palace of game kinds of sports (“PGKS”, «the Best sports construction of Russia of 2005-2006»), in 2006 reconstruction of the Central stadium has begun. Traffic intersections are constructed, including the largest on street Bebelja-technical, in 2002, are under construction on street of Radishcheva-turners, Posadsky-Moscow, a number of outcomes on a loop road. Active building of religious cult constructions is conducted (including the Temple-on-blood, 2003), some are constructed from them in parks and squares (методистская church and an orthodox temple on street Clear).


In 2003 in Ekaterinburg have passed Vladimir Putin's negotiations and German chancellor Gerhard Schröder. In June 2009 - the summits of the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation and BRICK, for the first time in history its cities have visited 12 heads of the states.